Properties of St 37 – s235 grade steels

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Structural Steels

Structural steels are industrial materials with certain steel grades and standardized standards of standard cross-sectional shapes. It has structural steel grades whose chemical compositions and mechanical properties are formulated according to certain applications.

It is inevitable for a steel structure to be applied in Europe to the EN 10025 European Standard, which is managed by the European Iron and Steel Standardization Committee (ECISS), a subset of the European Standardization Committee (CEN).

There are different examples of European structural steel grades: – S195, S235, S275, S355, S420 and S460. If structural steel is to be implemented in the European Union, they prefer three common structural steel quality standards, S235, S275 and S355, which are valid in all European countries. We will look at the chemical composition, mechanical properties and application limits of S group steels.

There are classifications of structural steels in accordance with the European Standard. These include S, 235, J2, K2, C, Z, W, JR, and JO. Of course, the standard classes are not limited to these and different symbols are used:

  • ‘S’ is structural steel;,
  • ‘235’ (tested at a thickness of 16 mm) for minimum yield strength of steel;
  • ‘J2’, ‘K2’, ‘JR’ and ‘JO’ indicate the strength strength of the metal according to the Charpy impact test or ‘V’ notch test methodology;
  • ‘W’ means resistant to atmospheric corrosion,
  • ‘Z’ represents structural steel with improved strength perpendicular to the axis,
  • ‘C’ defines cold forming.

In structural steels, initials are used to indicate that steel is of certain grades and standards. These standards are decided in the production process.

Although a global standard structure is not around the world, European and American standards are generally accepted. The reason for the change in steel standards is due to regional atmospheric changes and conditions. For example, structural steels produced for the US market should be specified in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). International rules are referred to as ‘A’ followed by the corresponding grade, for example, A36 or A53.

EU and US Equivalent Classes









Structural steels must meet certain specific criteria for shape, size, chemical composition and durability in order to be used in the area of ​​steel construction.

The chemical composition of structural steel is extremely important. It includes definitions describing the mechanical properties of steel. Below is a table where you can see the maximum percentage levels of some regulated elements in structural steel grades S235, S275 and S355.

St 37 Quality Steels

The steel called as St 37 quality is the American steel standard, ie the quality equivalent is S235. The carbon ratio of this class steels is around 0.20 maximum. It is the softest of hot rolled steels. St 37 quality steels are known for their easy processability, seamless welding and cutting. Steel construction is the most preferred quality of structures. Structural steel construction profiles and sheets are of the commercial quality of st 37, s235 quality class steels.

Chemical Composition of Structural Steels – S235, S275 and S355

Structural The chemical composition of steel is a delicate matter. It includes definitions describing the mechanical properties of steel. S235, S275 and S355 European In the structural steel grades, we share the Max levels of the elements present in the table.

USA norm

% C

% Mn

% P

% S



0,22 max

Max 1,60

0,05 Max

0,05 Max

0,05 Max


0,25 max

Max 1,60

Max 0.04

0,05 Max

0,05 Max


0,23 max

Max 1,60

0,05 Max

0,05 Max

0,05 Max

The chemical composition of the structural steel is of great importance by the engineer depending on the intended use. The steel quality to be used varies according to the steel construction structure. S355K2W is hardened, structural steel indicated by K2, and the chemical composition is arranged to withstand increased weather conditions – W atmospheric corrosion – W Therefore, this structural steel class will have different chemical composition for S355 standard.

Structural Steel Applications

Structural steels Steel construction construction applications are used in many different places in the mine, such as structural layers or the exterior of a building. Structural steel is frequently preferred by civil engineers because it is easy to process grade S, weighs less than other applications, and maximizes the durability of the structure.

It is clear that the construction industry is the most consuming sector of structural steel. One of the most important advantages compared to the factory buildings made of concrete beam is that the steel has a long life and is recyclable.

S Yield strength of standard steels

The yield strength of structural steel measures the minimum force required for a permanent deformation of the steel. The naming convention used in the European Standard EN10025 specifies the minimum yield strength of the steel class tested at a thickness of 16 mm.

Structural Steel Grade at 16mm

Minimum yield strength 16mm at nominal thickness


N / mm 2 (MPa)


33 000

235 N / mm 2


36 000

275 N / mm 2


50 000

355 N / mm 2


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